The correct spelling of letters



We are starting the next lesson in Russian. In this lesson, we will talk about how to spell letters in russian correctly. The letter И is pronounced as the sound [ы] after the consonants ж, ш and ц. For example:
Шил [шы́л], жил [жы́л], цирк [цы́рк].

As we said in the previous lesson, The letter Ы is not used at the beginning of words, that is, there is no word in Russian that begins with the letter Ы. However, if you see a word that begins with the letter Ы, then you must know that this word is not a Russian word, but simply used to correctly pronounce this foreign word in Russian in accordance with the original.

Now let's look at thecorrect spelling of vowels after the letter ц. In ancient Russian, the sound ц was a soft letter. However, over time, this voice has hardened in the literary language. For this reason, the sound ц is always pronounced hard, regardless of which vowel comes after the letter ц:
Цинга [цынга́], Цюрих [Цу́р’их].

Rules of writing the russian letters

Vowels after the letter ц are written in accordance with certain rules. This is mainly due to historical reasons. Let's look at these rules:
1. First of all, let's look at the rules of writing the letters a, я, у, ю, е, э that come after the letter ц.

I. After the letter ц the letters а, у, е are written:
Цапля, целый.

II. The vowels я, ю, э can be written after the letter ц only in foreign special nouns such as geographical and human names:
Цюрих, Цявловский, Коцюбинский.
Thus, if the letter ц is followed by the letters я, ю, э, then these words are foreign words used in Russian language.

And now let's look at the second rule, that is, the rules of writing the letters И, Ы, which come after the letter ц. The letter и is written after the letter ц at the root of the word. For example:
панцирь, цинга, дефицит, Сицилия, Цицерон.
However, there are some exceptions where the letter ы is written after the letter ц. For example:
цыган, цыплёнок, цыц, на цыпочках and related words. For example:
цыганить, цыкнуть, цыпки etc.
At the same time, in some special nouns, the letter ы can be written after the letter ц. For example:
Цыбин, Харцызск.

2. In the suffixes of words, the letter И is written after the letter ц. For example:
демонстрация, электрифицировать, электрифицированный.
However, when using with the adjective suffix -ын, the letter Ы is written after the letter ц. For example:
птицын, царицын.

3. And, of course, special names must be taken into account. In special nouns, the letter ы or и can be used after the letter ц. For example:
Вицин, Цицин, Синицын, Лисицын and so on.

Now let's look at the rules of processing the letters е, ё, о that come after the letter ц.

I. The letter ё is not written after the letter ц.

II. After the letter ц, the letter o is always pronounced with an accent, regardless of whether the letters are used at the root or end of the word or in the suffix. For example:
цо́коль, танцо́р, кольцо́.
The letter e is never pronounced with an accent after the letter ц. For example:
танцева́ть, кольцево́й, блю́дце.
Here we can make a comparison:
танцо́р- танцева́ть, кольцо́- кольцево́й.

We have said that the letter o is always pronounced with an accent after the letter ц. However, there are exceptions, the first of which is the use of the letter o without accents after the letter ц in words derived from the word цокот. For example:
цокотуха, цокотать, etc.

And, of course, there are some foreign words that can be used without accent.
For example: герцог, герцогиня, палаццо, скерцо, меццо and so on.